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Glossary Molecular Biology and Computational Biology

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Tandem repeat sequences Multiple copies of the same base sequence on a chromosome; used as markers in physical mapping.

Targeted mutagenesis Deliberate change in the genetic structure directed at a specific site on the chromosome. Used in research to determine the targeted region's function.

Technology transfer The process of transferring scientific findings from research laboratories to the commercial sector.

Telomerase The enzyme that directs the replication of telomeres.

Telomere The end of a chromosome. This specialized structure is involved in the replication and stability of linear DNA molecules.

Teratogenic Substances such as chemicals or radiation that cause abnormal development of a embryo.

Thymine (T) A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair AT (adenine-thymine).

Toxicogenomics The study of how genomes respond to environmental stressors or toxicants. Combines genome-wide mRNA expression profiling with protein expression patterns using bioinformatics to understand the role of gene-environment interactions in disease and dysfunction.

Transcription The synthesis of an RNA copy from a sequence of DNA (a gene); the first step in gene expression.

Transcription factor A protein that binds to regulatory regions and helps control gene expression.

Transcriptome The full complement of activated genes, mRNAs, or transcripts in a particular tissue at a particular time

Transfection The introduction of foreign DNA into a host cell.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) A class of RNA having structures with triplet nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the triplet nucleotide coding sequences of mRNA. The role of tRNAs in protein synthesis is to bond with amino acids and transfer them to the ribosomes, where proteins are assembled according to the genetic code carried by mRNA.

Transformation A process by which the genetic material carried by an individual cell is altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into its genome.

Transgenic An experimentally produced organism in which DNA has been artificially introduced and incorporated into the organism's germ line.

Translation The process in which the genetic code carried by mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids.

Translocation A mutation in which a large segment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.

Transposable element A class of DNA sequences that can move from one chromosomal site to another.

Trisomy Possessing three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two copies.

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