Biotech > Glossary

Glossary Molecular Biology and Computational Biology

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(Continued from previous part...)

Data warehouse A collection of databases, data tables, and mechanisms to access the data on a single subject.

Deletion A loss of part of the DNA from a chromosome; can lead to a disease or abnormality.

Deletion map A description of a specific chromosome that uses defined mutations --specific deleted areas in the genome-- as 'biochemical signposts,' or markers for specific areas.


Deoxyribose A type of sugar that is one component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Diploid A full set of genetic material consisting of paired chromosomes, one from each parental set. Most animal cells except the gametes have a diploid set of chromosomes. The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes.

Directed evolution A laboratory process used on isolated molecules or microbes to cause mutations and identify subsequent adaptations to novel environments.

Directed mutagenesis Alteration of DNA at a specific site and its reinsertion into an organism to study any effects of the change.

Directed sequencing Successively sequencing DNA from adjacent stretches of chromosome.

Disease-associated genes Alleles carrying particular DNA sequences associated with the presence of disease.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.

DNA bank A service that stores DNA extracted from blood samples or other human tissue.

DNA probe

DNA repair genes Genes encoding proteins that correct errors in DNA sequencing.

DNA replication The use of existing DNA as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands. In humans and other eukaryotes, replication occurs in the cell nucleus.

DNA sequence The relative order of base pairs, whether in a DNA fragment, gene, chromosome, or an entire genome.

Domain A discrete portion of a protein assumed to fold independently of the rest of the protein and possessing its own function.

Domain A discrete portion of a protein with its own function. The combination of domains in a single protein determines its overall function.

Domain Conserved structural entities with distinctive secondary structure content and an hydrophobic core. In small disulphide-rich and Zn2+-binding or Ca2+- binding domains the hydrophobic core may be provided by cystines and metal ions, respectively.
Homologous domains with common functions usually show sequence similarities.

Domain composition Proteins with the same domain composition have at least one copy of each of domains of the query.)

Domain organisation Proteins having all the domains as the query in the same order (Additional domains are allowed)).

Dominant An allele that is almost always expressed, even if only one copy is present.

Double helix The twisted-ladder shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when complementary nucleotides on opposing strands bond together.

Draft sequence The sequence generated by the HGP as of June 2000 that, while incomplete, offers a virtual road map to an estimated 95% of all human genes. Draft sequence data are mostly in the form of 10,000 base pair-sized fragments whose approximate chromosomal locations are known.

DUST A program for filtering low complexity regions from nucleic acid sequences.

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