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The constitution (typically number and size) of chromosomes in a cell or individual.
Knockout mice (gene targeting)
Mice which have been engineered to lack a chosen gene. The gene is inactivated in so called embryonic stem cells using the technique of homologous recombination. These cells are then introduced into a early stage embryo (blastocyst) and this is then transplanted into a recipient mouse. The subsequent progeny lack the targeted gene in some cells. This technique is used to determine the function of the chosen gene.
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