Biotech > Glossary

Microarray Glossary

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This gel separates proteins on a two-dimensional sheet of gel, first in one direction based on the isoelectric point, then in the other direction based on the molecular weight of the proteins under investigation.

absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology

Short for "allelomorph"; different forms of a gene that can exist at a single locus; the alleles might differ in DNA sequence and also affect the functioning of a single product.

Allele frequency
Describes the commonness of an allele in a given population, i.e. the percentage of all alleles at a given locus in a population gene pool represented by a particular allele.

Amino acid
Building block of proteins; around 20 amino acids are present in proteins: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine.

A stretch of DNA that has been specifically amplified by PCR

An inducible immunoglobulin protein that is produced by the B lymphocytes of the immune system. It recognizes and binds to a specific antigen molecule of a foreign substance introduced into the organism. Upon binding to corresponding antigens, the antibodies set in motion a process to eliminate the antigens.

Any foreign substance (self - non-self discrimination), such as virus, bacterium, or protein. After introduction into an organism, the antigenic substances elicit an immune response by stimulating the production of specific antibodies.

DNA or RNA molecule which has been artificially manipulated to allow binding with other molecules and viruses.

Array technology
In a broader context, array technology refers to computer science, engineering and also telecomminications. The technology may involve 2D gel electrophoresis, CCDs, detection technologies, fiber optics, imaging, ink jetting, mass spectrometry, photolithography, phosphorimagers, piezoelectric, semiconductors and spotting robots.

Robot for making microarrays. The robot transfers clones from microwell plates to microscope slides.

Association Study
Study that compares DNA samples from populations of individuals with and without a specific clinical trait

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