Biotech > Glossary

Microarray Glossary

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Hereditary unit that occupies a specific locus within the genome or chromosome and which can have one or more specific effects on the phenotype of the organism. A gene can be present in various allelic forms.

Gene expression
The degree to which a gene is active in a certain tissue of the body, measured by the amount of mRNA in the tissue. General: transcription and translation of a gene into a protein recombinant.

Gene signature
The genes that are consistently expressed in samples of a given tissue type.

Gene targeting
Technique for specifically inserting genetic loci modified in desired ways into e.g. laboratory mice.

Genetic engineering
Technology used to alter the genetic material of living cells in a way that the cells are capable of producing new substances or performing new functions.

Genetic map
Map of the positions of gene loci on a chromosome

Genetic mapping
The position of a gene on the chromosome is determined by means of recombination frequencies, and other solely genetic means.

Genetic marker
A piece of DNA or a gene whose properties (and sometimes also their position on the chromosomes) are known and can be used to identify particular cells or organisms; they might also be used as a reference point in a genetic mapping experiment.

The term describes the total genetic information of a specific unit of inheritance such as e.g., the nucleus or the mitochondria.

Genomic microarray
Technology that allows the assessment of multiple gene targets for the identification of gene amplifications or deletions in a different samples.

The systematic and comprehensive analysis of the structure and function of the genome with the aim to identify and understand the role of genes.

Genetic constitution of an organism.

Genetically modified organism

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