Biotech > Glossary

Microarray Glossary

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Complementary DNA; DNA which is synthesised from a messenger RNA template which is complementary to the coding strand of genomic DNA.

cDNA arrays
Developed at Stanford University; the microarrays are glass slides on which cDNA has been deposited by high-speed robotic printing and suited for expression analysis of up to 10,000 cDNA clones per array from EST sequencing projects. The microarray measurements are carried out as differential hybridisations, namely mRNA from two different sources is labelled with two different fluorescent dyes, then passed over the array at the same time. The fluorescence signal from each mRNA population is evaluated independently to calculate the treated or control expression ratio.

Cell array
High-throughput characterisation of gene function using cell arrays. High-density ordered array involving either living cells (microwells) or printed microarrays (slides). The latter involve full-length open reading frames of the genes in expression vectors that are printed at high density on a slide along with a transfection reagent. The slide is then placed in a cell culture plate and the microarray of DNA constructs is covered with adherent cells. Cells grow on top of the DNA spots, are transfected, and drive the expression of specific proteins.

Threadlike component in the cell which contains DNA and proteins. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes --> 46 chromosomes

A group of genes, cells or organisms that are derived from a common ancestor. Genetic material is not combined and the members of the clone therefore all genetically identical to the parent.

Sequence of three nucleotide bases that specifies a certain amino acid or a stop or start codon.

Combinatorial chemistry
A robotic system methodically synthesising large numbers of compounds, each having a composition slightly different from the previous one.

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