Biotech > Glossary

Microarray Glossary

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SAGE Technique for measuring mRNA levels that is different from that of RT-PCR, oligonucleotide chips and cDNA microarrays. Double stranded cDNA is created from the mRNA and a "sequence tag" (10 bp) is cut from a specific location in each cDNA. Subsequently, the sequence tags are concatenated into a long double stranded DNA which is afterwards amplified and sequenced. The advantages are that it is not necessary to know the mRNA sequence beforehand (also unknown genes can therefore be detected) and it relies on sequencing equipment that is usually present in most laboratories. The method does, however, require a large amount of sequencing.

Also referred to as "reader"; after fluorescent labelling and hybridisation, the scanner or reader scans the microarrays into a computer for subsequent analysis.

Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation invented by T. William Hutchens

Determination of a DNA sequence by either of two methods: The chemical cleavage method, developed by Maxam and Gilbert, is today hardly used, or the controlled interruption of enzymatic replication (Sanger et al.). It can also be determined by various automated methods developed from these two methods.

Shotgun library
Library of transformed plasmid clones, containing size-selected DNA inserts such as e.g. plasmids, cosmids, PCR fragments or whole genomes. The original DNA is nonspecifically fragmented by shering and then subcloned in a suitable vector.

Single nucleotide polymorphism; a site on the DNA strand at which the base sequence differs among individuals (Pronounce "snip"). See also: SNP chips, SNPs

SNP chips
Microarrays that are used for the genome wide genotyping of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) See also: SNP

See also: SNP

Substance on which an enzyme acts in biochemical reactions; or, in hybridisation arrays, the particular material onto which the biomolecules are deposited. These surfaces include glass, nylon, silicon or ceramic.

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